bv 300 Layer Management Guide

Types of Housing

BV-300 birds can be reared in deep litter system as well as in cages. There are three types of houses required for rearing:

  • The brooder house
  • The grower house
  • The layer house

The houses may be environmentally controlled houses or open sided houses. In India, open sided houses find favor and have proven successful.

Lengthwise, poultry houses should be in an east-west direction. The sheds should be well ventilated with even light distribution all over the house. Sheds should be constructed with rat-proof projections and should have an overhang (i.e. the outward projection of the roofing sheet) of five feet. Windows may be provided in the gable walls. Chicken wire mesh or chain link (¾ sq. inch) should be provided lengthwise, on both sides in open sided houses.

The advantages of open-sided houses are:

  • Less capital investment
  • Minimum use of electricity as compared to that of environmentally controlled houses
  • The ventilation is not dependent on electricity

Brooding and growing of birds are carried out either in deep litter or in cages. However, laying birds are generally housed in cages.

Deep Litter System

Equipment

For brooding each 300 pullet chicks, the following items of equipment are necessary:

  • One brooder made of bamboo or tin, 6 feet in diameter and brooder guard made up of tin or cardboard. Tin may be preferred as it is easy to clean and disinfect (20 feet long and 18 inch high cardboard sheet or tin made in perfect circle to function as brooder guard for this size of brooder).
  • Three water fountains with the capacity of two litres each
  • Three feeder lids or equivalent.
  • Wall hanging type of thermometer to check the room temperature and also to check the temperature at chick level
  • Brooding lights or electric thermo-coils or gas brooders

It is essential to ensure movement of air without creating a draught at the chick level. Similarly, arrangements to reduce flow of cold air in winter should also be provided.
It is necessary to provide sufficient feeding and watering space to birds, to avoid needless struggle amongst the birds for feed and water which could interfere with overall development of all the birds.

 
The requirement of feeder and water space for deep litter

Weeks Floor
sq.feet
Feeder
inches
Water
chicks/nipple

0 - 4 0.5 sq.feet 1 inch 16
5 - 8 1.0 sq.feet 1 inch 8
9 - 14 1.2 sq.feet 2 inches 6

Table No. 1

 
If bell type water fountains are used for the drinking water system, a standard round drinker should be kept, one for maximum 100 chicks or 75 growers or 50 layers.

Cage System

Brooder Cages

The birds can be reared in cages right from day one. The following requirements should be met with while designing the cages for chicks.
  • The chicks should be warm but not hot.
  • Chicks should easily reach feed and water.
  • Cages should have enough light so that the chicks can locate waterers and feeders easily. Each cage should have an access to two watering devices so that if one cup or nipple fails, birds will not remain without water.

Brooder cages may have different sizes. The size may be 30" width, 15" depth and 15" height, i.e. a floor area of 450 sq.inches which can accommodate 15 chicks up to 7 weeks of age. The bottom of these cages should be flat and have a mesh of 0.5" x 0.5".

 

Specifications for Brooder Cage

Sr. No. Particulars Commercial Chicks
(Up to 7th Week)
1. System 2 Tier - Reversible
2. No. of birds per box 15
3. Bottom Tier 30" x 15" x 15"
4. Upper Tier

30" x 15" x 15"
5. Floor space per bird 30 sq.inches
6. Feed Trough 22 G Aluminum Feeders

Table No. 2

Total number of chicks per box would vary depending upon the age. The recommended numbers are:

30 chicks per box between 0 - 3 weeks
15 chicks per box up to 7th week

 
Gas Brooding

Use of LPG operated Gas Brooders gives much more uniform heat as compared to conventional types of brooding practices like Electric Lamps, Coal or Wood Heaters. The radiant Gas Brooder creates micro-climate for the chicks so that they can choose their most comfortable place and warmth at any time. This results in proper growth and weight gain, which is more uniform. LPG Gas Brooding can be done either by central Control System or by Individually Controlled Infra Red radiant gas brooders. You should remember that any brooding system must have temperature control device. The advantage of temperature control is in energy saving and to meet the precise heat requirement of the birds which changes with their age.

Infra Red Radiant Brooder can be placed 90 to 130 cm above the ground level depending upon the heat requirement. The number and types of Gas Brooders can be decided as per the specifications of the Gas Brooder. It is very important to note that the Gas Brooder, which you select, spells out the specifications in terms of BTU or kW rating, operating pressures, etc. It is always safe to select the brooder, which has got international quality mark for safety and reliability. Before chicks arrive, please ensure that the filled LPG Gas Cylinders are available at the site. Maintain temperature of 32° to 34°C on day one. Measure the same at 10 to 25 cm above the litter level. Lower the temperature approximately by 3°C per week until attaining a temperature of 25°C. The temperature can be sensed by a sensor connected to the individual Gas Brooders or to the Central Control System.

 
Grower Cages

The size of the grower cage is generally 18" width, 15" depth and 15" height. This provides a floor area of 270 sq.inches and can accommodate five birds from 8 weeks of age up to 16 weeks of age allowing for 54 sq.inches per bird. The bottom of these cages also is flat and should have a mesh of 5.0" x 1.0".

 

Specifications for Grower Cage

Sr. No. Particulars Commercial Growers
(8 weeks to 16 weeks)

1. System 3 Tier - Reversible
2. No. of birds per box 5
3. Bottom Tier 18" x 15" x 15"
4. Middle Tier 18" x 15" x 15"
5. Upper Tier 18" x 15" x 15"
6. Floor space per bird 54 sq.inches
7. Feed Trough 22 G Aluminum Feeders

Table No. 3

 
Layer Cages

The bottoms of layer cages have slants to facilitate the easy rolling out of eggs once they are laid. Therefore, the height of layer cages is less at the back than in front.

The size of layer cage should be 15" width, 12" depth and 15" height at the back and 17.5" height at front. This cage provides a floor area of 180 sq.inches and can accommodate 3 laying birds providing an area of 60 sq.inches per bird. The birds are kept in these cages from the 17th week till end of their productive life. A nipple drinking system is preferred but provision for an additional open water channel will depend upon the severity of summer in that area.

 

Specifications for Layer Cage

Sr. No. Particulars Commercial Layers
(17th week onwards)

1. System 3 Tier
2. No. of birds per box 3
3. Bottom Tier 15" x 12" x 15"
4. Middle Tier 15" x 12" x 15"
5. Upper Tier 15" x 12" x 15"
6. Floor space per bird 60 sq. inches
7. Feed Trough 22 G Aluminum Feeders

Table No. 4

Note: Depending upon the age of the housing birds, nipple drinking system may be located suiting to the convenience of birds.

 
Laying Houses

  • Light bulbs or fluorescent tubes should be so located that the feeders and waterers receive light directly.
  • Artificial light should be evenly distributed all over the house.
  • Flourescent bulbs/tubes should be cleaned at regular intervals.
  • Eggs should be able to roll out smoothly, avoiding collision or breakage.
  • The height of the cage-stands should be such that the workers should be able to see them well enough to spot dead birds or non-functioning equipment.
  • Adequate ventilation should be provided in the laying house. Sheds should be protected from extreme heat or cold by providing adequate insulation or curtains.
  • Provide adequate clean feed storage.
  • Preventing the entry of rats, wild birds, parasites, etc. should be a point to remember while designing the poultry house.
  • Dead birds should be removed daily and disposed off by burning them in an incinerator or by proper burial.
 

Rearing Program

 
1st to 20th week

The BV 300 bird is equipped with the genetic potential of producing 320 eggs in her commercial life. However, this production can only be achieved if the chicks are provided with all due care in its brooding stage. If reared scientifically, the chicks will have standard and uniform body weights and the mortality will be negligible. Therefore, maximum attention should be paid while rearing the chicks in brooding stage.

 
A rearing program should satisfy the following goals:

  • At least 80% of the birds should be in the range of standard body weight ± 10%. The flock should be uniform. Birds should not be fatty or underweight.
  • Birds should be completely healthy, free from internal and external parasites and immune to all endemic viral and bacterial infections.
 
Preparations for arrival of chicks

Well begun is half done. Conforming to this proverb, a well managed brooding program is like meeting the half way mark to an excellent BV-300 performance. Brooding the chicks is an important and skillful part of good poultry management. Brooding is the base for the production of a good pullet.

Heating devices in the shed should be switched on at least six hours before the expected arrival time of chicks in cool seasons, so that the shed is heated to required temperature before chicks are placed in the shed. Waterers should be filled with water, electrolytes and anti-stress preparations.

Ensure that the tyre dip at the entrance of the farm is filled with the right disinfectant in correct dilution, so that the wheels of all incoming delivery vans containing chicks will be disinfected at the entrance. The water in the tyre dip should be changed periodically.

 
Water

Water to be given to the birds should be fresh, clean and potable. The following table shows standards for water quality:

Drinking Water Standards

Parameter

Maximum Permissible Limit

No. of Bacteria/mL 10 - 50  
No. of Coliforms/mL 0  
Hydrometric Level -30°  
Organic Substances 1 mg/L
Nitrates 0 - 15 mg/L
Ammonia 0 mg/L
Cloudiness/Turbidity 5 U  
Iron 0.3 mg/L
Manganese 0.1 mg/L
Copper 1.0 mg/L
Zinc 5 mg/L
Calcium 75 mg/L
Magnesium 50 mg/L
Sulphates 200 mg/L
Chlorides 200 mg/L
pH 6.8 - 7.5  

Table No. 5

 
While collecting water samples for bacterial/microbiological testing, care should be taken regarding the following:
  • Water samples should be collected in sterile bottles.Untreated water should be collected directly from the source of water supply.
  • Water treated with some water sanitizer should be collected from storage tanks, water pipelines and waterers for the birds.
 
Water Consumption

Water consumption of poultry birds varies substantially, depending upon the ambient temperature, humidity, temperature of water and age of birds. Please do not restrict quantity of drinking water to be offered to the birds.
The following table gives the general guidelines on the quantity of water consumed by 100 birds of different age groups daily at an ambient temperature of 28°C (82°F).

 

Water Consumption

Age of Birds
(weeks)
Water/100 Birds/Day
(litres)

1st and 2nd 4.80
3rd 5.40
4th 7.50
5th 10.50
6th 12.00
7th 13.20
8th 14.40
9th 14.70
10th 15.00
11th 15.30
12th 16.20
13th 16.80
14th 17.40
15th 18.00
16th 18.60
17th 18.90
18th 19.80
19th 22.50
20th 24.60
 

Note: Water consumption would differ depending upon the temperature and agro-climatic conditions.

 

Feeding

While the genetic potential of BV-300 for egg production has made consistent and considerable progress, simultaneously the bird's adaptability to various agro-climatic conditions, feeding practices and management practices has also improved tremendously over the last few decades. However, to optimise profits, it is necessary to provide economic but nutritionally balanced feed to obtain desired production.

There are a number of agro-climatic zones with varying seasons and temperatures. As nutritional requirements vary from area to area and season to season, you may need to consult the local BV-300 expert for designing feed formulation. However, in the following sections we have described general nutritional requirements for BV-300. Summer makes the bird eat less and hence, efforts should be made to increase their nutritional density and bring down the temperature in the house by various means. Similarly birds tend to eat more in winter and therefore, there is a need to make necessary changes in feed formulations. Feed consumption should also be correctly monitored so that correct nutrient levels can be provided.

 
Feed used in all phases of the life cycle of poultry birds must meet the following criteria:

Nutrients should be supplied in proper proportions and in a form which is bio-available to the birds.

Texture, color, taste of feed must be acceptable to the birds.

Feed must not be dusty.


Ideally feed must be free from following contaminants:

All pathogenic organisms

Harmful chemicals and

Toxins


If animal by-products like meat-meal, fish-meal, liver-meal, blood-meal and hydrolysed feather-meal are used, care should be taken to ensure that they are absolutely free from all types of contaminants.

Soybean meal, used in poultry feed, must have been properly roasted. Inadequate or excess heat during processing of soybean for oil extraction will damage the nutritional value of soybean. The level of roasting of soybean can be judged by feed analytical laboratories.

Calcium should be added to the feed in form of oyster-shell with particle size of 2.5 mm to 3.5 mm. If calcium is to be added in form of limestone, 2/3rd should be used as large particles (3-5 mm) and only 1/3rd in the form of powder. Limestone so used, should be low in magnesium.

Contamination of feed during storage, transport and delivery must be avoided. Wild-birds and rodents can contaminate the feed in any of the above stages.

If you are making your own feed, formulate your feed according to the season, age & body weight and production level of the birds.The formulations should be based on the actual weight of different ingredients and the accurate valuation of each feed ingredient before they are added together.

 

Feeding Recommendations for BV-300

Chick Mash

Chick mash should be fed to the birds from its arrival until the average body weight of the birds reaches 580 g. This is a feed-to-weight program rather than feed-to-age program. Body weight gains are better with pelleted/crumbled feed compared to mash feed. Therefore it is recommended to use pelleted/crumbled chick feed.
 
Grower Mash

The grower feed should be fed till flock reaches an average body weight of 1100 g. Do not administer pre-lay feed to the birds weighing below 1100 g.

 
Prelay Feed
Care should be taken to ensure pre-lay feed is introduced after the flock attains an average body weight of 1100 g and usually for two to three weeks.
 
Layer Feed

Layer feed offered to the laying birds should be formulated according to the age of the birds and egg production. Accordingly, layer feed can be divided into three groups i.e. Phase I, Phase II and Phase III. Phase I feed should be given upto the age of 40 weeks and later Phase II ration may be given. Phase III feed should be given after the age of 60 weeks.

 

Phase feeding saves money.

 

Suggested Nutritional Requirements
Chicks and Growers

  Chick Mash
up to 580 g
Grower Mash
580 - 1100 g
Nutrients
Metabolizable Energy kcal/kg 2750 2500
Crude Protein % (min.) 20.5 17.0
Methionine % (min.) 0.45 0.35
Lysine % (min.) 1.04 0.80
Calcium % (min) 1.00 1.00
Available Phosphorous % (min.) 0.45 0.40
Sodium % (max.) 0.18 - 0.20 0.18 - 0.20
Chloride % (max.) 0.18 - 0.20 0.18 - 0.20
Linoleic Acid % 1.20 1.00
Minerals
Manganese mg/kg (added) 80 80
Zinc mg/kg (added) 80 80
Iron mg/kg (added) 60 60
Copper mg/kg (added) 15 15
Iodine mg/kg (added) 1 1
Selenium mg/kg (added) 0.3 0.3
Vitamins
Vitamin A IU/kg (added) 12500 12500
Vitamin D3 IU/kg (added) 2500 2500
Vitamin K3 (MSB) mg/kg (added 4 4
Vitamin E IU/kg (added) 40 40
Vitamin B12 mg/kg (added) 0.015 0.015
Riboflavin mg/kg (added) 8 8
Niacin mg/kg (added) 50 50
Pantothenic Acid mg/kg (added) 20 20
Folic Acid mg/kg (added) 2 2
Thiamin mg/kg (added) 3 3
Pyridoxine mg/kg (added) 4.5 4.5
Biotin mg/kg (added) 0.1 0.1
Vitamin C mg/kg (added) 50 50
Choline mg/kg (added) (min.) 600 250

Table No.

 

Note:

Additional 0.05 mg/kg biotin should be given in feed to the chicks brooded in cages or where feed is mixed with bajra or millet.

 

Expected crude fibre level:
Chick feed - 5% maximum
Grower feed - 7% maximum

Summer:
Consult nutritionist to decide nutritional requirements for summer season

 

Suggested Nutritional Requirements Prelay and Laying Period

  Prelay Feed
**
Phase I Phase II Phase III
Age in weeks 16 to 18 19 to 40 41 to 60 61 to liquidation

Nutrients

Metabolizable Energy kcal/kg 2500 2500 2500 2500
Crude Protein % (min.) 17.0 17.5 16.0 15.5
Methionine % (min.) 0.40 0.40 0.30 0.30
Lysine % (min.) 0.72 0.80 0.70 0.70
Calcium % (min) 2.50 3.60 4.00 4.00
Available Phosphorous % (min.) 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.30
Sodium % (max.) 0.18 - 0.20 0.18 - 0.20 0.18 - 0.20 0.18 - 0.20>
Chloride % (max.) 0.18 - 0.20 0.18 - 0.20 0.18 - 0.20 0.18 - 0.20
Linoleic Acid % 1.40 1.40 1.20 1.20

Minerals

Manganese mg/kg (added) 80 80 80 80
Zinc mg/kg (added) 80 80 80 80
Iron mg/kg (added) 60 60 60 60
Copper mg/kg (added) 15 15 15 15
Iodine mg/kg (added) 1 1 1 1
Selenium mg/kg (added) 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
Vitamins
Vitamin A IU/kg (added) 12500 12500 12500 12500
Vitamin D3 IU/kg (added) 2500 2500 2500 2500
Vitamin K3 (MSB) mg/kg (added) 4 4 4 4
Vitamin E IU/kg (added) 40 40 40 40
Vitamin B12 mg/kg (added) 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015
Riboflavin mg/kg (added) 8 8 8 8
Niacin mg/kg (added) 30 30 30 30
Pantothenic Acid mg/kg (added) 10 10 10 10
Folic Acid mg/kg (added) 1 1 1 1
Thiamin mg/kg (added)

2 2 2 2
Pyridoxine mg/kg (added) 3 3 3 3
Biotin mg/kg (added) 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin C mg/kg (added) 50 50 50 50
Choline mg/kg (added) (min.) 500 500 500 500

Table No.

 

Note:

  • ** Care should be taken to ensure that Pre-lay Feed is introduced after the birds attain a body weight of 1100 g.

  • Sodium chloride and Sodium bi-carbonate may be used proportionately to balance sodium and chlorine ions.

  • Calcium may be incorporated in the proportion of 1/3rd powder form and 2/3rd grit form.

  • If the above given calcium levels are maintained, then there is no need of top dressing of shell grit or marble grit.

 

Feed Consumption and Body Weight
Targets of BV-300 (Growing Phase)

Type of Feed

Age

Grams of Feed per Bird

Body Weight
in g

Weeks

Days

Per Day

Cumulative

1

1

0 - 7

11

77

70

1

2

8 - 14

16

189

120

1

3

15 - 21

18

315

170

1

4

22 - 28

25

490

230

1

5

29 - 35

35

735

310

1

6

36 - 42

40

1015

410

1

7

43 - 49

44

1323

490

1

8

50 - 56

48

1659

580

1

9

57 - 63

49

2002

640

1

10

64 - 70

50

2352

740

1

11

71 - 77

51

2709

820

1

12

78 - 84

54

3087

900

1

13

85 - 91

56

3479

970

1

14

92 - 98

58

3885

1030

1

15

99 - 105

60

4305

1070

1

16

106 - 112

62

4739

1110

1

17

113 - 119

63

5180

1160

1

18

120 - 126

66

5642

1200

1

19

127 - 133

75

6167

1280

1

20

134 - 140

82

6741

1360

Table No.

 
The information regarding gains in body weight indicates the growth of a bird. A sample of approximately 100 birds will provide adequate information. However, it is recommended that the sample should be minimum 5% of the flock at the ages of 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks. In cages, the birds should be selected from boxes in different rows to represent the flock. As far as possible weigh the same cage birds every time. The underweight birds indicate excessive crowding, lack of feeder and waterer space, disease conditions, different types of stress and imbalanced or inadequate feed among other reasons. The information on body weights of birds will give the indication about the uniformity of the flock.

 
Flock Uniformity

Flock of ready-to-lay pullets should have uniform weights. Uniform flocks attain better peaks in productivity and sustain for a longer period than flocks showing wide variation in body weights. The following chart gives the criteria to decide the range of uniformity among the birds:

 

Flock Uniformity

Percentage of Pullets within ±10% of Avg. Flock Weight

Uniformity Rating

85% and over

Excellent

80 - 85%

Very Good

70 - 75%

Fair

Less than 70%

Unsatisfactory

Debeaking
Double Beak Trimming Programme
Debeaking is a standard practice among poultry men. This operation reduces feed wastage and also mortality in birds resulting from pecking and subsequent cannibalism.
Debeaking should be done in time and following proper procedures. It is recommended that the beak trimming be done in chicks at the age of 6 to 10 days. 1/3rd of the beak should be removed with the least possible stress to the chicks and minimizing the bleeding by proper cauterization. Gentle pressure on the bird's throat with the index finger on the neck will retract the tongue of the chick to prevent it from burning. Debeaking results in one of the greatest single stress in pullet rearing and hence anti-stress medication is advised before, during and after debeaking. Pullets may be debeaked again at the age of 12 - 14 weeks using methods and equipment suitable for the birds of that age. However, the debeaking should never be adopted after the age of 16 weeks. As a preventive measure administer Vitamin K in water one day before and on the day of debeaking.
Single Beak Trimming Programme
The best age for one-time beak trimming is 6 to 10 days of age or as per recommendation of machine manufacturer.

initBV300LayerManagementLinks()
Introduction
Table of Contents
Types of Housing
Rearing Programme
Feeding
Debeaking
Vaccination
Lighting
Disinfection and Biosecurity
Record Keeping
Production Standards
Performance Goals

 

Vaccination

Ensure that vaccines to be used are sourced from reputed manufacturers. The products of such manufacturers are produced under rigid standards of production and quality control. Vaccines should be transported in insulated, cooled and secured packing and should be stored under conditions specified by the manufacturer.

Consult your local BV 300 Technical Representative or Veterinary Expert, to decide the vaccination schedule for your farm. It is desirable to undertake serological monitoring for better designing of vaccine schedule.

Lighting

Types of Lighting

Two types of light sources are available for use in poultry houses. These are - fluorescent and incandescent.

 
Lighting Program

The poultry house should be provided with required warmth for chicks and enough natural light to locate feeders and waterers. During the brooding period, artificial lights should necessarily be provided for the initial 48 hours. Subsequently, depending upon the climatic conditions and brooding management, the need of artificial lights may be decided in consultation with local technical person.

 
Light Distribution

It is important to place bulbs in such a way so as to achieve equal distribution of light of the specific intensity throughout the poultry house.

 
Time Switches

Good quality time switches can be installed for poultry houses. This enables the availability of an exact quantity of artificial light to the birds. One has to monitor clocks, make adjustments for increasing or decreasing day lengths, power failures, etc.

 
Light during Growing Period

In India, the day length varies from region to region and between summer and winter. The total duration of lighting to be provided to the birds should take into consideration the available natural light.

Light has a direct effect on sexual maturity. The period of light made available to the flock affects the time the first egg is laid. Decreasing day length during growing period increases their growing period or helps in delaying sexual maturity.

Light day (total light in hours), should not be allowed to increase during growing period.

In India, we have open sided houses. BV-300 needs no special lighting programme during growing period. Therefore, do not give any artificial lights after 8th week of age.

 
Increasing natural day length during Growing Period

Monitor feed consumption and see that increase in the length of day light at sexual maturity coincides with an increase in feed consumption. During the initial period of lay, egg production rises rapidly and there is a rise in body weights too. Each of these changes needs additional feed intake. In areas where longer day length coincides with summer, one must take additional care for making feed allotments in cooler parts of the day to induce feed consumption.

 
Light during the Laying Period

Sexual maturity is controlled by the lighting program during the rearing period. The length of day i.e. number of hours of light per day and the intensity of light are both factors that need to be considered. Lighting programs are designed to have a flock lay 5% production at 19th week of age and attain peak production by 25th week of age. The average body weight of BV-300 pullet at the age of 20 weeks should be 1360 g.
Many farmers use Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL) during laying period. CFLs of 12 watts, are economical, as they save on electricity, provide an even distribution of light, and whose results are comparable.
Natural light should be made use of till the flock achieves the desired body weight and 80% production. Later, increase the artificial light by ½ hour every week till it reaches 15 hours, inclusive of natural light.

 
Things to Remember

  • Do not increase the light suddenly.
  • Ensure the length of the day (natural + artificial), intensity and equal distribution of light in poultry house.
  • Never allow rise in day length more than one hour. Preferably, increase ½ hour per week to reach required period of maximum 15 hours.
  • As a thumb rule, provide 1 watt per 4 sq.feet area or 5 to 10 lux.
  • Keep the bulbs clean.
 

Disinfection and Biosecurity

Cleaning and disinfection plays a vital role in the management of poultry, helping avoid various bacterial, viral, fungal and protozoal diseases.
After vacating the shed of all birds, preferably in one operation or in shortest possible time, the house should be disinfected and kept vacated thereafter for sufficient time until arrival of new flock.

 
Cleaning and Disinfection

  • Remove all waterers, feeders, curtains and bamboo basket brooders (hovers). Clean and wash them thoroughly with water jets and then washing soda solution. Afterwards dip them in a virucidal disinfectant as per manufacturer’s instructions. Then sun dry for a day or so.
  • Remove all organic material e.g. manure, litter, feathers, dust, etc. preferably after spraying 5% to 10% formalin and collecting the above in closed containers e.g. gunny bags or plastic bags. All organic matter mentioned above should be disposed off, away from farm premises (in deep pits with formalin spray, caustic soda, salt, etc.).
  • Measures should be taken for controlling the entry of rodents and wild birds.
  • Clean all the fans, bulbs/tubes, wirenets and water tank. (For automatic drinking system, remove all water from pipeline. Fill the whole watering system with 5% to 10% solution of sodium hypochlorite, keep it overnight or at least 3-4 hours. Flush the system with plain water to remove the solution).
  • Bamboo basket brooders from all IBD affected sheds should be disposed off by burning and new brooders should be used for new batch.
  • Chemical Treatment: Floors should be soaked with strong solution of caustic soda flakes (NaOH) with pH above 12 for 12 to 24 hours. Then drain out the water completely.
 
Dose:  
Caustic soda flakes (NaOH)* 11 to 12 g per liter of water. 100 liters of such solution should be used for 1000 sq.feet.
Washing Soda (Na2CO3) 4 to 5 times the above dose i.e. 50 to 60 g per litre of water or 5 to 6 kg per 1000 sq.feet.
Re-wash the flooring by spraying any of the below mentioned disinfectants e.g.

      • Quaternary Ammonium compound or chlorine 10 to 20 ppm to be used either in the form of bleaching powder or sodium hypochlorite (containing 20% available chlorine).
      • Iodine in dilution to provide 1000 ppm.

* Caution: It is necessary to use hand gloves and gum-boots during use of caustic soda treatment.

  • In case of ticks, mite and lice infestation the shed may be sprayed with Cythion at the rate of 80 mL to 160 mL per 10 litres of water. Here it is very important and mandatory to follow the safety precautions, as spraying of this type of insecticide is hazardous.

  • Painting: White wash the shed with lime solution with 1% kerosene and 5% formalin. In case of previous batch history with high mortality, suitable virucidal disinfectants may be sprayed as per manufacturers' recommendation.

  • Fumigation: Refix all washed and disinfected curtains and fumigate as below.

Fumigation with Formaldehyde gas is a common practice. However check with your local authorities whether it is permissible. Single strength concentration is obtained by mixing 40 mL of formalin with 20 g of potassium permanganate for volume of 100 cubic feet. Double strength is sometimes used in specialized needs. Fumigation is more effective in presence of humid atmosphere than dry. Hence, spraying the walls and floors with water before fumigation is necessary. All the cracks, crevices and windows should be sealed till the fumigation is in process (normally 40 hours). Formalin is poured over the potassium permanganate, over the pots beginning from the farthest end of the shed.

 
Caution: Fumigation should be done under supervision of competent person.
For effective fumigation it is desirable to have wetness (humidity) inside the shed and temperature above 24°C.

Note: In case the distance between sheds is short or the birds are present in the neighboring sheds, then fumigation may be undesirable and hence be avoided. Wherever fumigation is not possible it is suggested to wet the flooring and walls up to 3 feet height with formalin solution (5%) for a period of at least 6 hours.

 
  • At the end, use spray of virucidal disinfectants commercially available in the market. Consult local technical expert or veterinary expert for choosing the disinfectants and follow manufacturer's instructions for the usage.

  • After cleaning and disinfection keep the house vacant for a period of 15 days.

  • It is advisable to undertake spraying of virucidal disinfectant 48 to 72 hours before actual arrival of chicks.

 
Note : (a) The litter material such as rice-husk, saw-dust, etc. that is to be used in deep litter shed need to be fumigated before use. (b) Laboratory monitoring for ensuring proper disinfection and to diagnose the disease status of farm.
 

Whitewash

Given below is the formula, which gives proportion of different ingredients to be included in lime
To the whitewash thus prepared, add following ingredients for special effects.
White washing of house with this mixture will serve the basic purpose.

 

Biosecurity

All In All Out : The system is strongly recommended for maximum extraction of genetic potential of birds. It is suggested to have separate brooding and growing facility away from laying facility.

Restriction on Men and Material : Sales persons, egg buyers, servicemen and visitors should not be allowed to enter in. Workers' movement from one age group to other should be minimized to the extent possible. Under no circumstances should men move from laying houses to brooding.

Foot Baths : Foot baths should be provided at the entry of the farm necessarily and each house wherever possible. This foot bath should contain suitable disinfectant in necessary dilution. Water from foot baths should be changed periodically.

Foot Wear : Foot wears (preferably rubber slippers) should be used for changing the foot wear before entering the farm.
Disposal Methods of Dead Birds: The immediate burning or burying of dead birds is an important part of a good disease prevention program.

Incinerators : A good incinerator is probably the best means of disposal, especially in an area where there is poor soil drainage or a danger of contaminating the water supply.
Important - when operating an incinerator, be very sure that birds are completely burnt to a white ash.

Disposal Pit : A less desirable but acceptable method of dead bird disposal is through the use of an adequately designed and tightly covered disposal pit. A pit of 6 feet (1.83 m) in diameter and 6 feet deep (1.83 m) is large enough to take care of one 10,000 capacity layer unit. It is necessary to remove all dead birds immediately and they should be disposed off properly.

 

Production Standards

Standards for Commercial Layer Flocks

Age in Weeks

Livability

Production %

Egg/HH/Weeks

Cumm. Egg HH

Recommended Daily Feed

19

100

5

0.35

0.35

75

20

100

15

1.05

1.40

82

21

100

38

2.66

4.06

90

22

99.9

64

4.48

8.54

93

23

99.9

83

5.80

14.34

96

24

99.9

89

6.22

20.56

102

25

99.8

92

6.43

26.99

104

26

99.8

94

6.57

33.56

106

27

99.7

94

6.56

40.12

108

28

99.7

95

6.63

46.75

108

29

99.6

96

6.69

53.44

109

30

99.6

97

6.76

60.20

111

31

99.6

97

6.76

66.96

111

32

99.5

97

6.76

73.72

115

33

99.4

96

6.68

80.40

115

34

99.3

96

6.67

87.07

115

35

99.2

96

6.67

93.73

115

36

99.1

96

6.66

100.39

115

37

99.0

95

6.58

106.98

114

38

98.9

95

6.58

113.55

114

39

98.8

95

6.57

120.13

114

40

98.7

95

6.56

126.69

113

41

98.6

94

6.49

133.18

113

42

98.5

94

6.48

139.66

113

43

98.4

94

6.47

146.13

113

44

98.3

93

6.40

152.53

113

45

98.2

93

6.39

158.92

113

46

98.1

93

6.39

165.31

113

47

98.0

93

6.38

171.69

113

48

97.9

93

6.37

178.06

113

49

97.8

92

6.30

184.36

113

50

97.7

92

6.29

190.65

112

51

97.6

91

6.22

196.87

112

52

97.5

90

6.14

203.01

112

53

97.5

89

6.07

209.08

112

54

97.4

89

6.07

215.15

112

55

97.3

89

6.06

221.21

112

56

97.2

89

6.06

227.27

112

57

97.2

89

6.06

233.33

112

58

97.1

88

5.98

239.31

112

59

97.0

88

5.98

245.29

112

60

96.9

88

5.97

251.26

112

61

96.9

88

5.97

257.22

110

62

96.8

87

5.90

263.12

110

63

96.7

87

5.89

269.02

110

64

96.6

86

5.82

274.84

110

65

96.5

86

5.81

280.65

110

66

96.5

86

5.81

286.46

110

67

96.4

85

5.74

292.20

110

68

96.3

84

5.66

297.86

110

69

96.3

84

5.66

303.52

110

70

96.2

83

5.59

309.11

110

71

96.1

82

5.52

314.63

110

72

96.0

81

5.44

320.07

110

 

 

 

320.00

 

41.25

 

Performance Goals

The following performance goals are expected to be achieved during the 52 weeks of laying circle:

 

Livability

96%

Egg Yield

320 eggs cumulative hen housed

Feed Consumption

41.25 kg/bird during laying

Peak Production

(above 90%) 25 weeks to 52 weeks of age

 
Note : Suggested Management guide based on Venkteshwara hatcheries recommendations. Management practices should be worked out  in consultation with local poultry consultant because requirement differs from area to area.This management guide can not used as universal management guide for all the area. We don’t owe any responsibility for any consequences if any body uses this management guide as it is.

 
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